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200 years since the foundation of Egyptology… The story of the lost city in which the Rosetta Stone was located | photo

The Rosetta Stone was discovered in August 1799, while Bouchard, a soldier of the French Expedition, was assigned to work in a castle north of Rosetta, he found a stone built into an old wall, and the wall had to be demolished to lay the foundations of the castle of Saint-Julien.

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Here, General Mino, the ruler of Rashid, decided by the French occupation to bring the stone to his house in Alexandria, after cleaning and taking care of it.

Coinciding with the 200th anniversary of the founding of Egyptology after deciphering the Rosetta Stone, Al-Ahram Gate publishes the story of the vanished city that was built on its ruins, the city of Rashid.

Historian Muhammad Muhammad Zaytoun says in his book Iql al-Buhaira, edition of 1962, that the doctor and scientist Bursh confirmed that the discovered stone was located in the temple of Tom or Tomos or the setting sun in the first half of the fourth century BC, and the Rosetta Stone was transferred to Cairo, and Napoleon threw it on it. Bonaparte looked admiringly, then the stone was transferred to the British capital London in February 1805 AD, after the defeat of the French forces in the naval battle of Abu Qir at the hands of the English forces, and the Rosetta Stone is still to this day sitting there in London museums amid demands from Egyptian archaeologists to return the stone to his native Egypt.

The stone was found in its condition, and its length is 115 cm, its width is 73 cm, and its thickness is 28 cm. Horace, and under it two snakes, one crowned with the crown of Upper Egypt (Said) and the other with the crown of Lower Egypt (Delta), and it is most likely that its height was originally between five or six feet, and that it was standing on a high base close to the statue of the king in the temple, and when The plaque similar to the Rosetta Stone was discovered in the Philae Temple in Aswan.

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The stone is made of solid black basalt, and written in three languages ​​from top to bottom: hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. Its date is likely to correspond to March 27, 196 BC, the era of King Ptolemy V. Zeitoun says that it is known that the Egyptians were in their revolt because of the grievances of the Ptolemies. They destroyed the temples and destroyed them, and the priests of the Delta revolted against the ruler Ptolemy Philopator, and the revolutions followed, which paralyzed the Ptolemies’ movement at sea and disrupted the movement of trade. The revolutions increased in flames during the reign of Ptolemy V. He gave them temples, abolished taxes, waived government debts to the people, and returned their property to the revolutionaries.

For these works, the temple of Ptah and Apis in Memphis witnessed a meeting of priests of Egypt from Upper Egypt to the Delta, in the ninth year of the reign of Ptolemy V, in order to glorify his works, asking him their gods with strength, victory and life. He prays three times a day, and celebrates his sitting day and his birthday every month, with this decree engraved in the three languages, on a basalt stone, and that an image of him be made on a solid stone, and with him the image of the king in all the temples of the first to the third degree, and he was in the temples of Upper Egypt. The Delta has many copies of this decision, but only the Rosetta Stone or the Rashidite writing remain, and a copy of it was found at Al-Nabirah. However, some archaeologists confirm that copies of the Rosetta Stone were found in the cities of the Delta near Alexandria, the capital of the Ptolemies.

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The stone was placed in the city of Politen, which is the city that disappeared and Rashid rose on its ruins, and this stone may have been transferred from the city’s temple in Bulletin, especially the temple of Cleopatra, to the place where Bouchar found the stone and took the name Rashid, and Muhammad Muhammad Zaitoun confirms that the Rosetta Stone He revealed facts that did not exist, namely the Egyptian languages. He also revealed information about Ptolemy V revealed by the archaeologist Prokash, stressing that near Rashid also, specifically Tell Mansour, archaeologists found a writing dating back to the fourth or third century BC, in which were writings about five presidents and a writer. A local council, and the scholars concluded that it is a sign of the local government system in Alexandria in the Ptolemaic era. Inscriptions were also found in Adku, which contain cuneiform scripts. A small stone with Greek scripts on it was also found. It was transferred to the Greek and Roman Museum in Alexandria. Archaeologists interpreted it as referring to granaries. yields.

Since the Rosetta Stone was found, artists and scientists have made imitation models of the stone and drawings for the writing on it, to facilitate the knowledge of ancient Egyptian symbols, but their efforts did not reach the secret of the ancient Egyptian language, until the French scientist Jean Francois Champollion came and on September 14 of 1822 AD, this revealed The mystery, which opened to the world the secrets of the civilization of ancient Egypt.

hieroglyphic symbols

Jean Francois Champollion Jean Francois Champollion