- James Gallagher
- BBC Science and Medical Reporter
A recent study found that how long an animal lives is linked to a genetic code.
Researchers have found that animals from tigers to humans undergo approximately the same number of mutations until they die, but inanimate animals, according to 16 animal species analyzes, adopt the mutation processes planned for them within a short period of time. Found.
Researchers say this explains why we age and sheds light on one of the most mysterious aspects of cancer.
Experts say the findings by researchers at the Wellcome Sanker Institute in the United Kingdom are surprising and thought-provoking.
Genetic mutations are invasive changes in the laws that govern the construction and function of an organism’s body, which is the genetic code.
It has been known for some time that these mutations cause cancer, but the relationship between aging and its effects has been debated for decades.
Researchers at the Sankar Institute say they have the first empirical evidence to confirm this. Lion, mole, rabbit, rat and tiger.
According to a study published in the journal Nature, the rat undergoes about 800 mutations a year, with a short lifespan of only four years.
The higher the average age of an organism, the lower the number of mutations in its genetic map.
Dr. Alex Keegan, one of the researchers, said that this model is surprisingly interesting, which suggests that all animals go through about 3,200 mutations in their lifetime.
If the genetic code of humans were changed at the same rate as that of mice, we would be subject to about 50,000 mutations in our lifetime.
“Despite the different ages of the mammals, they go through the same number of mutations. It’s related to the number, but its meaning is still a mystery,” Cogan told the BBC.
The cells of the body may have undergone a significant mutation after him. Some cells that behave badly begin to take over vital tissues such as the heart as we age, so there is also the notion that our organs need to function.
Aging is not thought to be related to a process that takes place in the cells of our body.
It is believed that non-genetic changes associated with telomeric reduction, structure and process at the end of the chromosome play a role.
But if mutation occurs, it raises the question of how much genetic damage can be slowed or repaired.
Researchers want to know if this model applies only to mammals or to all species, and they are now targeting fish for research and analysis, including the 400-year-old Greenland shark, which is the longest-lived vertebrate. .
In cancer science, there is a dilemma known as the “beto paradox”, which is based on the question of why the incidence of cancer is lower in long-lived animals.
The more cells in your body, the more likely it is that one of them is more likely to develop cancer, such as whales and elephants.
Whales are made up of trillions of cells, which means they must die because they can develop cancer before they reach puberty, says Dr. Kagan.
But the truth is, megabouns live longer, so the explanation may be in a small number of mutations, but researchers say this may not be all.
The macaque and the giraffe live about the same time, although the giraffe is immeasurably larger during that period, with the same number of mutations.
“One would expect giraffes to have fewer mutations, but body size is not a bar,” says Dr. Cogan.
Scientists believe that some other factors have been developed that prevent these animals from developing cancer, which could encourage scientists to look for new cancer treatment plans.
The gap between 47 mutations per year in humans and 800 per year in rats is the largest, said Dr. Alexander Gorlake and Dr. Camila Naxerova of Harvard University.
They claim that this difference is striking because of the great similarity in the genetic map of mice and humans.
According to Dr. Simon Spiro, a veterinarian and wildlife researcher, animals live longer in zoos than in the wild, so veterinarians spend time exploring the stages of aging.
He added, “The genetic mutations found in this study indicate that age-related diseases are similar in a large number of mammal species, beginning at the age of seven months or seventy years.”
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