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An event 4 billion years ago reveals the secrets of 9,000 craters on the moon

Researchers have finally figured out the secret why one side of the moon is much more cratered than the other.

The researchers concluded that a huge asteroid collided with the moon about 4.3 billion years ago, causing damage to the moon’s mantle.

There are more than 9,000 visible craters on the moon’s face that were caused by meteorites, asteroids and comets over billions of years, according to the International Astronomical Union.

However, these craters are not evenly distributed across the surface of the Moon. The far side of the Moon, which people never see from Earth, has a much higher concentration of craters than the visible near side.

The near part of the moon contains fewer craters, because the surface is covered with large areas of solid lava that we can see with the naked eye on Earth as dark spots on the moon, and it is possible that these lava fields covered the craters, and the far side of the moon does not contain Lava, which is why the moon’s craters are still visible.

Scientists have long suspected that lava formed in the wake of a massive collision about 4.3 billion years ago, and this collision led to the creation of the Antarctic Basin, which is a huge crater, which is the largest crater on the moon, more than 2 km wide, more than 8 km deep, and the second largest crater A confirmed shockwave in the solar system, however, so far researchers haven’t been able to explain why lava fields are found only on the moon’s near side.

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The new study, published on April 8 in the journal Science Advances, found that the impact of the creation of the Antarctic basin created a unique phenomenon within the lunar mantle, the layer of magma under the crust that affected only the near side.

“We know that large impacts like the one that formed the Antarctic Basin will create a lot of heat,” lead author Matt Jones, a doctoral student in planetary sciences at Brown University, said in a statement. The question is how this heat affects the moon’s internal dynamics.

The researchers already knew that the near-Earth lava fields originated inside the lunar mantle, because lunar samples brought in by the Apollo missions contain radioactive and heat-generating elements such as potassium, phosphorous and thorium, which are suspected to be abundant in the lunar mantle, according to the statement.

In the new study, computer simulations revealed that the effect of creating the Antarctic Basin would have created a heat plume within the mantle that would push radioactive elements toward the crust.

The researchers repeated the simulations for a number of possible scenarios for the impact of the creation of the Antarctic basin, including direct hits and lightning strikes, and found that no matter how the asteroid impacted, the mantle effect would have affected only the near side of the moon.

In other words, when a space rock collided with the moon, it caused lava to flow out of the mantle on the near side, burying many ancient archaeological craters.