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Climate affected human migrations out of Africa for 300,000 years

Climate affected human migrations out of Africa for 300,000 years

Ancient climatic conditions influenced human migrations of Homo sapiens out of Africa over a period of 300,000 years, according to specific times and paths, as indicated by the results of a new study published in the journal Nature Communications today, Tuesday, August 24.

The researchers used paleoclimate reconstructions and estimates of the minimum rainfall that hunters and gatherers would need to survive; To assess when and how groups moved out of Africa through favorable weather conditions and wet corridors into Eurasia.

in a studying, which highlights the role of paleoclimate variability in modern human dispersal, the authors show when it was climatically feasible for Homo sapiens to migrate from Africa.

The authors suggest that the difficult environmental conditions in southwest Asia, the sporadic arrival of humans from Africa, and potential competition with other hominins, may explain the failure of early waves of Homo sapiens migration to settle permanently in Eurasia, before the largest successful migration occurred about 65 thousand years.

Andrea Manica, professor of evolutionary ecology at the University of Cambridge and lead author on the study, points out that the findings revealed that there were a number of time windows that were suitable for human migration from Africa long before the major exodus that occurred 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. The study suggested it, along with findings from genetics and archaeology, that multiple migrations out of Africa may have occurred over the past 300,000 years.

“The difficulty of reconstructing the early exits is that the evidence is very fragmented, and human remains outside Africa over the past 300,000 years are very few, and it is difficult to rely on the interpretation of the artifacts, because we cannot be sure of the identity of who made it; Other species lived in Eurasia at that time, such as Neanderthals and the mysterious Denisovans, and perhaps others that have not yet been discovered.

“Some analyzes looking at interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals have found traces of possible past interbreeding events, but genetic dating for such an event is very imprecise, and our work provides a catalog of favorable periods when the exclusions may have occurred, which helps assess the plausibility of some other lines of evidence.” for previous exits.

The study also indicates that the climate was not a gateway to prevent people from leaving Africa, but rather there were many opportunities that were seized, some of which were seized, and the main barrier to exit was the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, so the study looked at the disparity in rainfall and dry periods, so the researchers got a baseline of what the climate was right for early humans.

We looked at the distribution of mammalian herders and modern hunters, and took into account that they had access to techniques that might not have been applicable in the past, and it turns out that both show a clear pattern of being present only when rainfall is higher than 90 mm of rain Annually, this is the threshold that distinguishes desert from dry shrubs, and we used this threshold to estimate the appropriate timing for human migrations out of Africa.

Maneka stresses his conviction that climate change was the driver behind human migration from Africa at that time immemorial, and that climate is the main determinant of the extent to which any species of animal or plant occupies, adding: But it is not the only determinant; Because interactions with other species are also important.