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History.. the science of constructing ideas about the past

History.. the science of constructing ideas about the past

If we ask about the meaning of history, its nature and meaning, the first thing that naturally comes to mind is the linguistic meaning of the word “tarikh” which in our Arabic language means time and the statement of time, and the proof of accidents and facts coupled with the time of their occurrence. The word was used in our Arab heritage to denote general history. Or the recording of important incidents, and then the word became definitive of the historical event, as it occurred, and then the narration of this event by specifying the time in which it occurred. The word history is also used to denote the civilized march of man, since the beginning of his existence on the surface of the earth, and phrases such as: This is a historical event, and this is an event that history will record, and this is a testimony to history, and the word history is often used to denote the study of the human past. , to unravel its ambiguity and achieve knowledge of the human self, and what it has accomplished through the ages.

Dr. explains. Ahmed Zakaria Al-Shalaq in his book “What is History?” In his introduction, Ibn Khaldun mentions that history appears to be no more than telling of days, states and precedents from the first centuries, and history on its surface appears as a narration of the news of the ancients and the rise and demise of states and civilizations, but in reality it is a matter of consideration and investigation, that is, contemplation and study of various human activity through eras, to monitor the causes of historical phenomena, and to reveal their causes and the reason for their existence.

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Ibn Khaldun also reveals the cultural significance of history, “as a tool that enables us to reveal the stages of human development, because the truth of history is that it is news about human society, which is the construction of the world, and what exposes the nature of that urbanization from conditions such as savagery and fanaticism.” The previous statements reveal the extent of Ibn Khaldun’s awareness Khaldoun for the function of history as a science, and his awareness of its civilizational function in the service of human society.

History Civilization of History for Arabs and Muslims» The term history in our current era is used to denote the totality of human activity, that is, everything that humans have accomplished since their existence on the surface of the earth and throughout their history with the succession of times.

It also considers “history” as a record of accidents, not as the accidents themselves, and then “history” becomes a term indicative of the making of history, or the process of “history” that is, man’s attempt to describe and explain his past, and this is related to the efforts of scholars and philosophers of history, who made the History is a human science that is concerned with reconstructing ideas and actions that humans have accomplished as much as possible, based on the scientific method used in historical writing, which is the retrospective method.

Differences

Al-Shalak believes that it is necessary to differentiate between the word “history”, whose meaning denotes the civilizational march of mankind since time immemorial, and the word “history recording” which expresses the intellectual and structural effectiveness of writing history, or re-recording and interpreting the course of humankind, and we can also add that “what “Behind history” is a term that means searching for the forces and factors that drive the movement of history. We should also differentiate between the word “history” or the word “history,” as the latter means writing or recording history. If history is the human past, then history means the human effort to write this past. and register it.

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The reality is that history is the outcome of man’s relationship with space and time, or it is the totality of man’s actions on earth over the past time, or in Hegel’s term, human life in its temporal extension on earth, and the factors governing this human life, that history is self-knowledge of a living mind, and with Its facts are not present before the historian, the evidence for it is in front of him. The issue of history is not just the past, but it is the past for which we have evidence.

Time is the base of the historical process, and it is impossible to imagine a historical event outside the scope of time. As for the place, it is the scene of historical events and facts. As far as the data provided by the environment such as land, water resources and natural resources, as well as the challenges it poses to man, the form of the historical phenomenon is determined. As for man, he is The port of the historical act or the maker of civilization, and the relationship between man and history is a dialectical relationship, both of which affect the other and man in his present and future is the son of his past, and our present that we live is nothing but a product of the civilized achievements of the past, and all material and moral achievements are the outcome of past experiences.