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Scientists reveal new ways to track dark matter

Scientists reveal new ways to track dark matter

may be researchers dark matter On the cusp of a major breakthrough in the search for the universe’s most elusive matter, they reveal new ways to track down a potential dark matter candidate – boson clouds.

It is said that about 85% of each substance in Universe It is explained by dark matter, yet no one has ever proven the existence of this matter, and it is considered “dark” precisely because it cannot be seen, does not interact with any known form of radiation, and has so far escaped all known detection methods. However, scientists can see the effect of dark matter on the universe as a whole, and put forward a number of theories that may one day solve the cosmic mystery, and one of these theories is the existence of so-called boson clouds orbiting black holes.

Bosons are a class of subatomic particles that are incredibly light and painstakingly difficult to detect on Earth.

But a team of researchers in Australia, in collaboration with LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA, has proposed a new way to detect the clouds of these particles using gravitational waves – ripples in the fabric of space-time.

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In a new study previously published on the arXiv server, researchers from the Australian National University (ANU) in collaboration with LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA propose searching for gravitational waves produced by potential boson clouds near rapidly spinning black holes.

Their study has been described as the world’s first comprehensive sky survey designed to search for this specific phenomenon.

Dr Lily Sun, of the ANU Center for Gravitational Astrophysics, said: ‘Very light bosons are almost impossible to detect on Earth. The particles, if present, have very small masses and rarely interact with other matter – one of the main properties that matter appears to have. Dark matter has it.Dark matter is matter that can’t be seen directly, but we know that dark matter exists because of its effect on things we can observe.But by looking for gravitational waves emanating from these clouds, we might be able to track down the elusive boson particles and perhaps decipher dark matter .Our searches could also allow us to rule out some very light bosons that our theories say can exist but actually don’t.”

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And if these bosonian clouds exist, gravitational-wave detectors here on Earth should be able to pick up their own gravitational signals.

Detectors like LIGO have already detected gravitational waves from colliding black holes even though these events occur billions of light years away.

“Gravity wave discoveries not only provide information about the mysterious compact objects in the universe, such as black holes and neutron stars, but also allow us to search for new particles and dark matter,” Sun said. “Future gravitational wave detectors will certainly open up more possibilities. We will be able to reach deeper For example, the discovery of boson clouds using gravitational wave detectors would bring important insights into dark matter and advance further searches for dark matter. It will also advance our understanding of particle physics on a large scale. wider.”

The study also shed new light on the possibility of the existence of bosonian clouds in the Milky Way by taking into account their ages.

According to Dr. Sun, the strength of the gravitational wave from the boson cloud will depend on the age of the cloud – the older it gets, the weaker the signal.

“The boson cloud is shrinking because it loses its energy by sending gravitational waves,” she said. “We learned that a certain type of boson cloud younger than 1,000 years is unlikely to be found anywhere in our galaxy, while clouds up to 10 million years old are unlikely to exist on Earth.” About 3,260 light-years away from Earth.