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The discovery of a very hot exoplanet, several times the size of Jupiter

An international team of astronomers has discovered a new, super-hot exoplanet using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Reconnaissance Satellite (TESS).

The newly discovered extraterrestrial world is nearly twice as large as Jupiter and has a skewed orbit. The scientists published details of this discovery in a research paper published August 25 in arXiv.

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The so-called “hot Jupiters” are similar in characteristics to the largest planet in the solar system, but have orbital periods of less than 10 days.

These exoplanets have high surface temperatures because they orbit their parent stars closely.

Now, a group of astronomers led by Samuel HC Cabot of Yale University has reported the discovery of a new exoplanet of this type, which has been shown to have a very high surface temperature. While observing the particular bright star TOI-1518 with TESS, a transit signal was identified in the light curve of this object.

The planetary nature of this signal was confirmed by follow-up high-resolution observations using the EXPRES spectrometer at the Lowell Discovery Telescope.

“We present the discovery of TOI-1518b, an extremely hot Jupiter, orbiting a bright star. The transiting planet was confirmed using high-resolution optical transmission spectra from EXPRES,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.

The radius of TOI-1518b is about 1.875 the radius of Jupiter, while its mass is uncertain, and it is estimated to be no more than 2.3 Jupiter’s mass.

Monitoring the future radial velocity of this system will provide more details about its mass. The planet orbits its host every 1.9 days, at a distance of approximately 0.04 AU.

The study found that TOI-1518b has an equilibrium temperature of 2,492 K and a measured brightness temperature throughout the day of 3,237 K, indicating that it may exhibit thermal reflection.

However, more spectroscopic observations of this exoplanet are needed to confirm this.

According to the research paper, TOI-1518b has a highly skewed orbit, about 240.34 degrees.

In an attempt to explain this discovery, astronomers have noticed that gas giants generally close together around hot stars are skewed. TOI-1518 has an effective temperature of about 7300 K, is about twice as large as the Sun and has an estimated mass of 1.79 solar masses.

The study also detected the presence of iron (Fe) in the atmosphere of TOI-1518b. The team conducted a cross-correlation analysis in the atmosphere and found the neutral iron. They emphasized that so far there have been only a few previous discoveries of iron on superhot Jupiters.