Philosophy has always asked questions, but the science of philosophy as a major science made its theses mainly centuries ago, and its major debates arose in the nineteenth century, up to the first half of the twentieth century, and here we mention The most important philosophers who influenced this science.
The German philosopher Nietzsche is one of the most influential philosophers in Western philosophy and the history of modern thought. He began his career studying classical philology, before turning to philosophy.
Nietzsche’s historical research in the development of modern moral systems and judgments occupies a central place in his philosophy. Nietzsche saw that there had been a fundamental shift in human history from thinking about “good and bad” to thinking about “good and bad”. The result of this research was that Nietzsche saw that there Several types of morals arose from the fact that there are many sources of morality, and that moral standards and values are created by different people.
The German philosopher Hegel developed what is known as the dialectical approach, through which he proved that the course of history and ideas takes place with the existence of a thesis, then its opposite, and then a synthesis between them. Hegel was the last builder of the “major philosophical projects” in the modern era, and his philosophy had a profound impact on most contemporary philosophies.
Hegel’s philosophy, according to Geoffrey Hartmann’s book The Fateful Question of Culture, issued by Cambridge University Press, considered that the basic characteristic of man is “self-awareness” and that this feature “makes him able to return to himself, which is itself the essence of thought, which means reflection or regression.” Hegel used the concept of “Awareness” to establish a comprehensive philosophy of history, which is the most important product of the human mind. Accordingly, the history of the world, from Hegel’s point of view, is a struggle on the part of the spirit to reach the stage of self-awareness.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant is the last of the most influential philosophers in modern European culture, and one of the most important philosophers who wrote in classical epistemology. Immanuel Kant was the last philosopher of the Enlightenment, which began with British thinkers John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume.
His most famous work is his book Criticism of the Abstract Reason, which he published in 1781 when he was about sixty years old. In this book, he examines and investigates the limitations and structure of the human mind itself. In this book, he attacked traditional metaphysics and classical epistemology.
Jean Paul Sartre
Sartre published “Being and Nothingness”, which showed Sartre’s influence on the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. He delved into the theoretical foundations of his system of thought, and built his thoughts on existentialism, which turned into a popular philosophy in the fifties of the last century. Its basic ideas are based on freedom and responsibility.
He studied at the University of Freiburg under the supervision of Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, then became a professor there in 1928 and directed his philosophical interest to the problems of existence, technology, freedom, truth and other issues. Among his most prominent books: Existence and Time; closed paths; what is called thought; basic concepts in metaphysics; truth call; in what human freedom is; Nietzsche.
Heidegger was distinguished by his great influence on philosophical schools in the twentieth century, the most important of which are existentialism, hermeneutics, philosophy of refutation or deconstruction, postmodernism.
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