The Civilizational Heritage Series of the Egyptian General Book Organization issued the book “Al Jamahir fi Ma’rifat Al Jawaher”, authored by: Abu Al-Rayhan Muhammad bin Ahmed Al-Biruni Al-Khwarizmi (362 AH – 440 AH / 973 AD – 1048 AD), a study and investigation by: Prof. Tariq Nazel, which was recently published in Nearly four hundred pages, and holds the number (45) of the series’ editions.
In turn, Prof. Dr. Tarek Nazel, Professor of Restoration of Archaeological Stones and the former Dean of the Institute of Graduate Studies of Papyrus and Inscriptions at Ain Shams University, says: The new scientific study of the book Al-Jamahir in the knowledge of gems destroys Darwin’s theory a thousand years before its emergence!Although the title of the book has nothing to do with anthropology or anthropology; Rather, it is a book on the science of minerals and precious stones, but its demolition of Darwin’s theory in terms of the history of its assumption and the validity of its hypothesis is something that has been deduced and proven.”
In this scientific study presented by Prof. Dr. Tarek Nazel, Professor of Restoration of Archaeological Stones and the former Dean of the Institute of Graduate Studies of Papyrus and Inscriptions at Ain Shams University, and if it is something that calls to be mentioned in the context of a book on metallurgy, one should be surprised and admired together, but what reduces the degree of wonderment and increases it. The degree of his admiration is that the author Al-Biruni is not only a mineralogist; Rather, he wrote in various sciences, including a book that is considered one of the most prominent pioneering anthropological studies, which is rightfully considered the founding project of anthropology, which is the book “Achieving India’s saying that is acceptable in the mind or reviled.”“.
But because the book is in mineral science, we will leave the matter of anthropology to the end of the article, and highlight the book and study it in terms of its scientific specialization; As some Western objective researchers considered it one of the most important things that mankind knew in the field of metallurgy until the middle of the sixteenth century… We do not exaggerate when we say that this book was issued accompanied by another book in the form of an extensive scientific study; Where it reached nearly one hundred and fifty pages; The many European scientific “discoveries” in the field of metallurgy after the Renaissance were highlighted in it, which Al-Biruni talked about in his book many centuries before the Europeans.!! .
This important scientific study of the book reveals two main things; The first is that despite the existence of dozens of books devoted to the science of gemology and minerals before and after Al-Biruni’s book, it remained at the forefront in the whole world, in terms of its scientific importance, until the middle of the sixteenth century. Although they did not hesitate to talk about other books, which have no scientific importance compared to Al-Biruni’s book, in a very big paradox in the history of science, which puts the reader in front of important questions about the credibility and objectivity of the history of science written in Western hands!! And if this indicates anything, it indicates a lack of credibility and a racist tendency, which is bad to be attributed to the scientific merit and precedence in the scientific field of Arab and Islamic civilization..
Here, Dr. Tariq Nazel, in his study of the book, posed an important question: What is the point of following the stages of development of a science if we exclude from this sequence the achievements of one of the greatest scholars of this science, and I mean here Al-Biruni, knowing that much of the “scientific” information that was contained in The writings of the time period that preceded and followed Al-Biruni in the Middle Ages and until the beginning of the sixteenth century.“.
Although the book had been investigated and published before, and perhaps the first of which was the German orientalist Fritz Krnko, after he collected his manuscripts and published it in 1936 AD in Hyderabad, India, the edition issued by the Egyptian Book Organization presented what had not been presented before Whether in investigation or study, it proved that Al-Biruni was able before the Renaissance to transfer mineral science from the stage of descriptive science, which was mainly based on describing color, hardness and texture, to the stage of accurate science, which depends on numbers and arithmetic equations; Al-Biruni was the first to adopt specific weight in the study and classification of minerals and designed an accurate device for measurement and accuracy that was not reached until the eighteenth century..
The study of the book “The Masses” proved information that we could not know regarding the value of diamonds among Arabs and Muslims, as it did not occupy a high position as the people of India, for example, as it proved that it was inferior to many precious stones such as sapphires, emeralds and pearls, where he mentioned Al-Biruni stated: “And the people of Iraq and Khurasan do not distinguish between the types and colors of diamonds, and they all have the same as one, as they do not use it for anything other than piercing and poisoning, and they do not venerate it in India’s glorification of it.”
Al-Biruni confirms this meaning by justifying the prior mention of diamonds over what we mentioned of the gems by saying: “Because it is active in ruby in what is below it and is not passive with something above it and is not affected by what is below it.” It also proved beyond any doubt that Muslims and Arabs preceded the Western world by nearly five centuries in studying the crystalline and optical properties of diamonds. The aesthetics of diamonds, then he added: “Diamonds are rarely seen in nature with polished faces, and therefore their beauty remained hidden until the fifteenth century.” Types according to its color and crystal forms, and he cited the action of the great Canadian scientist in examining diamonds by saying:
“And the way to test it is to put one end of it in a candle so that the fingers can hold it, then it is held in front of the eye of the sun. If redness and flame shine from it, like a rainbow, it was the chosen one, and that shines only from the white and yellow of it only.” The study also proved that Muslim metallurgists knew the phenomenon of A scientific not known except in the data of modern science, which is the phenomenon of playing colors “Play of color” In short, it is a phenomenon that arises as a result of a group of reflections and refractions of light resulting from the fall of the light ray on the surface of the crystal and its passage through it, and as a result a number of light rays of different wavelengths are produced, which would interfere with each other, a problem for these multiple colors that appear in the crystal. What determines the nature of these resulting colors are the angles formed between the incident light rays and the surfaces of the crystal. Therefore, these wonderful colors must have polished crystal faces with different angles in order to deal with the light as a component of them. Al-Biruni mentioned this phenomenon in many paragraphs in the book, quoting Al-Kindi, including, for example, what he mentioned in describing the yellow sapphire, where he mentioned what he said: It has these colors when moving it, and they change colors like Abu Baraki in the coloring of his feathers according to the shade and the shade and placing them in it.” He comments on Al-Kindi’s knowledge that these different colors do not stem from the crystal, but rather from a special treatment between the crystal and the light. It is not subjective, but it is imaginary, and he may see in the fractures of crystal and in the crystal skin in the sun these colors at best – as well as he sees them from the narrowness of opening his eyes and overlooking them with the hair of his eyebrow and the middle between his eyes and the eye of the sun. He mentioned that the essentialists in ancient times did not seek to carve precious stones and were content with polishing them. Therefore, the phenomenon of playing colors remained unknown until the second half of the fifteenth century, stressing that the process of carving faces for precious stones was not known until this time.!.
The new study of this book presented by Dr. Tariq Nazel highlighted an important aspect away from the subject of the scientific book on mineralogy, as it proved beyond any doubt that the Shiite claim that Al-Biruni is a Shiite stemmed from the greed for the honor of attributing “Al-Biruni as the greatest mentality known to them in history” Which is not from the scientific truth in anything, and to prove this, the writer reviewed the words of the scholar Al-Biruni, where he said: “The virtuous kings used to collect money in their homes from mosques and bring them for the sake of their faces – then they hoard them by separation in the hands of the protectors of the harem, then those who defended the cave of the enemy from the estate when Their first idea was the last of their work – and they are like the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and those who imitate Muqtada like Omar bin Abdul Aziz, many of the Marwanids and a little of the Abbasids, when they saw what they imitated as a heavy burden they had carried and considered it an ordeal that they had afflicted with, and they were striving to reduce its strength and shy away from the decline in its burden. Do you not see, O fair reader, in this speech that Al-Biruni praises the Rightly Guided Caliphs and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, such as the Rightly Guided Caliph Omar bin Abdul Aziz, may God be pleased with them all, with clear asceticism? Then he also mentioned, in more than one place in the book, words from the jurisprudential point of view about the ruling on using gold and silver utensils, and he cited the opinions of one of the four imams of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah, which is Imam al-Shafi’i, may God be pleased with him, including his saying: Sapphire and crystal pots because their value is the value of gold and the extravagance in them is more than the extravagance in them – and he said in the mother, that their use is permissible because the meaning is specific to gold and silver with prohibition. Al-Mutarha until Al-Shafi’i, may God be pleased with him, was asked about it, and he replied“.
Dr. Tariq Nazel ended with what this report began with, which is the matter related to Darwin’s theory, which did not appear until the second half of the nineteenth century, specifically in 1859 AD; After Darwin published his book The Origin of Species, in which he assumed selective biological evolution, and the supporters of creationism followed him and used it to refer to the origin of life, and even they applied it to the concepts of cosmic evolution, and both of them undoubtedly proved his failure and error, and this is not our concern now, but what we are concerned with here Two points deduced by Professor Dr. Tariq Nazel from the words of Al-Biruni, where he mentioned what he said: “This is because of what they heard from the naturalists that the red sapphire is extremely perfect, as is the gold of fines in its very moderation. Something – and that gold also resonates in various types of dissolved from its parents, mercury and sulfur, and passed over lead, copper, swarms, and silver until it fulfilled the dye and sobriety, so it stopped and did not exceed the rank of perfection. He reached the utmost level of perfection, in addition to the animal below it, and in it they go to its socket and essence, not that he ascended to humanity of its types until he ascended from the cynic to the bear and then to the monkey until he became sympathetic.”
The first point is that what Al-Biruni mentioned at the end of the paragraph proves that Darwin and his theory of evolution and elevation to say it is not new, but it was put forward ten centuries before the publication of his book, and the second and most important point is that this assumption has been rejected and the issue of the perfection of human creation has become a given, and even that was applied. On all creatures, including jewels, sapphire was not quartz and then evolved into sapphire, and gold was not a base metal and then elevated to a precious metal.
It is the faith dimension that spared the scholars of the tenth century AD from wasting time in corrupt theories, and it is its absence that misled the scholars of the nineteenth century by engaging in them. Creation proceeds according to it, and it is always subjected to this, and it does not lag behind. It is clear in his saying in one of his books that: “Causes that are not in bodies, such as the things that philosophers call “nature,” “mind,” and “the first cause” do not transfer order to disorder, but rather Transfers disorder to system, or holds system to system“.
Prof. Dr. Tarek Nazel concluded his study with a concluding speech by the Russian orientalist Krachkovsky: “We have nothing to do with this but bow in reverence and respect in front of the brilliant scientific results reached by Al-Biruni, and the rich scientific heritage that he produced in the conditions of the time in which he lived.” These are my words to you also, world Galilee.
The Cultural Heritage series is issued by the Egyptian General Book Authority, headed by the writer Salwa Bakr, while Dr. Osama Al-Saadouni Jamil is its editor-in-chief, and is interested in publishing the eyes of cultural heritage over the ages.
Prof. Tarek Nazel
Professor of the restoration of archaeological stones and former dean of the Institute of Graduate Studies of Papyrus and Inscriptions at Ain Shams University
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