Shafakna – The origin of the formation of parties, being the strongest and most influential among the political groups and preoccupied in the political game, goes back to Britain in the nineteenth century, although centuries ago in ancient Greece and many other societies there was a struggle between political currents in order to seize power, but the parties in their sense Contemporaries appeared in conjunction with democratic revolutions and the development of electoral and parliamentary laws in Europe. Historically, providing assistance to the rise in political participation, the rise in government legitimacy, the unification of the ranks of the people, conflict management, socialization, and the peaceful transfer of popular demands and a harmonious identity, is one of the functions of parties in European countries.
However, the party system in those countries has witnessed in the past two decades changes in the electoral behavior and the behavior of the parties. The old connections between voters and parties are going through a stage of collapse. This can be seen in the demise of the party identity and its activities and the reduction of party members, and that the roots of these changes go back to Social developments, especially the change of the long-term economic and social structure in European societies, as citizens lost their previous relationships and obligations and became focused on new centers and institutions, including the media. As a result of this process in European countries, new parties and regimes emerged to meet the new demands.
Unlike the majority of parties, which must pay membership costs and allocate time to participate in their occasional meetings, membership in social networks does not incur any costs for citizens, and they can plan at any time to participate in those networks and when they have the opportunity to participate in group discussions And express their opinion or listen to others, besides, the metaphorical nature of social networks gives people the opportunity not to reveal their true identity if they wish to do so and join groups under a false name.
Another feature of metaphorical social networks is the presence of people belonging to different groups, freedom of expression, and the emergence of a space for discussions and exchange of ideas. Therefore, these social networks attract citizens, and participation in them is an enjoyable matter compared to participation in traditional institutions such as parties.
But with all these features and advantages, it may be exposed to the exploitation of people with bad intentions. Hence, the metaphorical media and the metaphorical space become a place for spreading lies and electoral rumors with special political goals, creating tensions in the political atmosphere and spreading hypocrisy among the members of the same society, and distorting the basis of elections, then it ends To deceive the public opinion and spread despair and keep citizens away from political participation. In contrast to the parties that gather in the form of a group that is familiar with matters and bears political and social concerns and is committed to the laws as well as the foundations of the political system, the metaphorical space does not recognize any restrictions on the participation of individuals and anyone can participate and express opinion away About his studies, experiences and age, and this matter carries with it the danger of spreading superficiality and reductionism.
Apparently, in the current period, the metaphorical space and social networks have created a great shift in the needs and desires of citizens all over the world, and political institutions, including parties, and in order to preserve their position, must be aware of these transformations and redefine themselves according to modern developments. The developments continue to be active based on previous methods. However, if this method is chosen, it loses its influence on public opinion as well as the performance of its role in the political and social space of society, leaving the arena for its strong and influential competitor, i.e. the metaphorical space.
Source: Iranian diplomatic website
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