“The Science of Anwaa”… The Unknown Arab Heritage in Rain, Wind and Poetry
A researcher monitors its scientific, linguistic and historical aspects
Thursday – 13 Muharram 1444 AH – 11 August 2022 AD Issue No. [
Cairo: Rasha Ahmed
The nature of life based on travel and tracking raindrops in search of grass and pastures dictated that the ancient Arabs had mastered some sciences and knowledge; Especially about the conditions and the weather; Where the blazing sun of the day compelled them to “secret” which is to leave at night, they used to cross empty deserts and distant deserts in the dark, guided by the moon or the shining stars in the dome of the sky, so that their caravans would not go astray and their wealth in camels would perish through the similar successive sand dunes like the sprawling waves of the sea. As far as the eye can see.
About this innate knowledge, the book “History of Anomalies among the Arabs” revolves recently issued by the “Egyptian General Book Authority”; Where researcher Dr. Ahmed Attia monitors the various aspects of this science, bypassing its direct meaning as one of the branches of astronomy, which is concerned with rain and winds in the first place.
According to the researcher, linguistic dictionaries have provided several definitions of the substance “Nawa.” In his book “Al-Muhit fi Al-Lughah,” Al-Saheb bin Abbad focused on the term, trying to explain its linguistic structure. Another in about him at that hour. And the end of something is waning: that is, a tendency to fall. While “Al-Jawhari” focused in his definition in the book “Al-Sahih Taj Al-Lughah” in his definition of the moon’s mansions and their duration, he said: “The tidal wave is the fall of a star from the houses in the Maghrib with the dawn and the rise of its watchman from the East corresponds to it from his watch.” It is almost the same direction taken by Al-Zamakhshari in his book “The Foundation of Eloquence”, he said: “Wana’: It fell, and Naa’: it rose.”
It is clear from studying the previous definitions and reflecting on them, that most of the sources from which these linguistic dictionaries quoted their definitions of the term “meaning” revolve between the sciences of hadith and language, and we did not know that anyone derived his definition of that science or that term from astronomy books, for example, which is one of its branches. For centuries, perhaps this is due to the delay in astronomy among Muslims.
The term acquires another dimension for some ancient astronomers and researchers, such as Abu Ishaq Al-Fazari, the astronomer of the Caliph Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour, and Abu Muasher Al-Balkhi, who died 272 AH, in his book “Rain, Winds and Changing Identities”, according to what the orientalist Carlo Nellino mentioned, quoting from “Al-Fihrist”. Al-Nadim, and “The History of the Wise Men” by Al-Qafti, passing through Kochiar Al-Jaili, who died in 420 AH, Ibn Sina, who died in 428 AH, and Al-Biruni, who died in 440 AH.
The author concludes that most of the scientific production written by these great figures in the field of astronomy and astrology has not reached us. Al-Fazari, for example, has not received anything from his books: “Working on the Flat Astrolabe” and “Working on the Astrolabe.” It is also noted that Muslim astronomy was concerned with measurement and not with observation. Muslim astronomers were concerned with the issue of multiple measurements to calculate the distance between the planets, their movements, their points of convergence, their rising and setting, and the consequent change in weather conditions.
The author mentions that in the manuscript “Kitab al-Sir” by Abu Ma’shar al-Balkhi, we find a hadith on the science of anomalies, in which he holds a chapter on the interpretation of winds and rains and their causes, which are the core of the science of anomalies, saying: “As for winds and rains, they are from the two gentle steams that rise from the seas and rivers before rising. The sun, you may see that hour and steam rising like smoke, one of the steam is dry, and ascending from the diameter of the earth arises winds with thunder, lightning, thunder, thunderbolts and sparks, and what is similar to this. The second vapor is moist, and its ascent is from the essence of moisture, and from it the mist, ice, snow and rain split off.”
This interpretation presented by Al-Balkhi is very close to the circle in which the science of anomalies is concerned with the Arabs. Which confirms that these works are among the real sources of the science of Anwaa among the Arabs.
Georgy Zeidan, in his book “The History of Arabic Language Literature,” goes that what is meant by the anointing, according to them, is what corresponds to the science of the mentioned phenomena to the rising or setting of the planets. The effect of the fall is sharp. This is what one of them said in a poem:
“And eternity, so know, it is all quarters.”
For every quarter, one seventh
And every seven for the rise of a planet
And the cusp of a fallen star in Morocco »
In Ibn Qutayba’s book “Al-Anwa’ in the Seasons of the Arabs” it says: “One of the characteristics of the south is that it stirs the sea until it blackens, and every dew that lies in the belly of the earth appears until the earth softens, and if you come across a building built in the winter, it shows its dew and makes it scatter, as it lengthens the short dress. And narrows her ring on the finger. The Arabs say that the south said to the north that I have a favor over you, I am my family, that is, I walk at night, and you do not sleep, so the north said: The free does not run.
The book “Al-Anwa’” by Abu Yahya Muhammad bin Abdullah Knasa Al-Kufi, who died in 207 AH, is one of the early works that were written on the science of anatomy among the Arabs. From the history of our Arab heritage.
Ibn Qutayba reported on the authority of Ibn Knasa that eight positions of the moon and planets are closely related to winds and rain, but there is another important matter to which those existing statements on the authority of Ibn Qutayba and his attribution to Ibn Knasa refer to it, which is that it is a doctrine on the Arabs’ doctrine of knowledge of anatomy, and it is an existing practical knowledge. On observing the sky or on the process of observation, not on analogy, which represented a major sign in astronomy for Muslim scholars later on.
The book “Al-Anwa’ fi Mawasem al-Arab” by Ibn Qutayba al-Dinori, who died in 276 AH, is almost a book on linguistics; However, the area that he covered in his hadith of the science of Anwaa is much wider, which indicates that this science has occupied a significant area of the Arab mentality.
After explaining the introduction in which he explained the purpose of his compilation, Ibn Qutayba begins by mentioning the mansions of the moon, which is closely related to the issue of the annoyances. Where he says: “The moon’s mansions are twenty-eight, and the moon descends every night with one of them, from its duration to twenty-eight nights. One of these houses was cut off from one of these houses. Then he mentions an important paragraph that rightly reflects that the knowledge of the Arabs on which Ibn Qutayba relied on astrology and the related animosities, has reached a stage that cannot in any way be underestimated or underestimated, bearing in mind that the Arabs did not have monitoring devices , but they depended on the naked eye. Ibn Qutayba says: “These twenty-eight houses appear to the viewer in the sky fourteen houses, and fourteen houses are hidden from him, as well as the constellations, which are twelve signs. What is apparent to us from the sky is half of it for our eyes, and God knows best.”
The book is located in 163 pages of large volume, and despite the wit and suspense of the subject, the author’s commitment to the academic scientific method made his language dry at times.
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