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What is grammar |  Madam Magazine

What is grammar | Madam Magazine

Arabic grammar, in fact, is like all sciences and languages, and it has been called grammar; Because we follow the way of the Arabs in their words and follow their footsteps; Our saying (towards something) means his intent, walked its path, and imitated it.. Grammar studies the origins of sentence formation, the rules of syntax, and syntax is a science that, in essence, is concerned with adjusting the endings of words according to their position in the sentence, and the syntax or construction that affects them, in addition to its interest in other matters. Like the meanings of the letters, the reasons for introducing or delaying the word, and so on.

Dr. Adel Ahmed Saber, an expert in Arabic language specializing in rhetoric and criticism at Al-Azhar University, told «Madam»: Arabic grammar is a science that specializes in studying the conditions of the end of words, in terms of syntax and construction, such as: the provisions of the syntax of words, the signs of their syntax, and the places in which this is taken. Judgment.. In the language, grammar is called the intent, or the direction.. Originally, grammar was meant to study the parsing, which means the end of speech; The expansion of the Islamic state led to the mixing of Arabic speech with non-Arab speech, and the introduction of melody into the Arabic language.

The birth of Arabic grammar

Grammar in the origins of sentence formation

The first appearance of grammar was in the era of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib; As he referred to Abu al-Aswad al-Du’ali to set the rules of grammar; To root and control the grammar of the language, and to confront the linguistic melody, especially with regard to the Qur’an.. Thus, Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali was the author of the science of grammar, and then scholars after him began to increase it little by little, such as: Al-Farahidi who developed the science of accidents, and laid the foundations of the morphological balance to know the origin of words Sibawayh, who wrote the first book in which he collected the rules of Arabic grammar, called “al-Kitab”, and “al-Kitab” is still a major reference for Arabic grammar until now.

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Grammar rules are applied to speech, which is every useful word that is better to be silent on, and it consists of at least two words (two nouns “knowledge is light” or a verb and the name “the Messenger came”). As for any word that does not achieve meaning or benefit; It is not possible to apply grammar rules to it, and among the words that cannot be applied to grammar are the singular words such as: “water”, the auxiliary compound such as “football”, the mixed compound such as “Baalbek”, and the predicate compound such as: “Jad Allah”. The conditional sentence without its answer is included in these terms, such as: “If the team wins.”

Abu al-Aswad al-Du’ali was probably the first to invent a unique method for tuning words in the Holy Qur’an. He would put a dot in a color opposite to the color of the writing above the letter; To denote the fathah, a dot below the letter; To denote the kasra, and a point to the left of the letter; To denote the damma, and two points above or below the letter, or to its left; to indicate the intention; And to indicate the sukoon of the letter, he left the letter free of dots, and thus Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali was the first to dot the Qur’an in Harakat, that is, the first to develop the science of grammar. And it was said that he would buy it.. It is narrated that the most famous stories about the reason for the development of the science of grammar, is that Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali passed by a man who was reading the Holy Qur’an; So he recited: “God is innocent of the polytheists and His Messenger.” That is, it is sympathetic to (the polytheists), and this changes the meaning; The word (His Messenger) is raised; Because it is the beginning of a sentence omitted its appreciation (and His Messenger is also innocent), and therefore the correct reading of the verse is: (God is free from the polytheists and His Messenger), and for this Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali went to Ali – may God be pleased with him – and explained to him that the Noble Qur’an, and Arabic; Ali – may God be pleased with him – took a piece of paper and wrote on it: In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, speech is a noun, a verb, and a letter. To my father al-Aswad: “Give this way,” he wants him to walk like this, with the aim of setting firm rules for Arabic. Since the second century, scholars have successively worked hard; To preserve the grammatical rules, and they did not fail to do so, and he was one of the most famous who was keen on arranging the grammatical rules, and he was known as the Imam of Grammarians, the Persian grammatical scholar Sibawayh; He laid down the rules of grammar, and arranged them well.

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The importance of Arabic grammar

A science concerned with the study of the states of the endings of words

Knowledge of Arabic grammar is necessary, and the importance of knowledge of grammar rules and word control is summarized as follows: – The Arabic language is the language of the Qur’an, and everyone who wants to understand the Qur’an and its religion must read it correctly; not to be misunderstood; In order for him to understand the legal rulings in their correct form, just as some verses, if they are not read in their correct exact form, The melody and error in reading it may affect the meaning, as in the saying of God Almighty: (Indeed, God is innocent of the polytheists and His Messenger); Some of those who follow the Book of God Almighty unintentionally err; So they read the word of his Messenger with the breaking of the lam, and then the meaning will be completely contrary to Islamic law; For when the word of His Messenger (by breaking) is applied to the polytheists, the meaning becomes that God is innocent of the polytheists and of His Messenger, and God forbid that he renounce his Messenger; Rather, what is meant here is that God Almighty and His Messenger are innocent of the polytheists; The word (His Messenger): is a name attached to the word “God” that is raised and a sign raised by the visible hug.

– Understanding the intended speech and the intended meaning through the correct adjustment of the words, and this is evident, for example, in the difference between the following two phrases: We witnessed the winner; Since the word winner is fixed with the fatha, which is the object of it, and the movement of the fatha clarifies the intended meaning, which is that the verb of the subject falls on the object of the winner. , which is that the verb of the subject falls on the conscience of the speakers (us), and the subject who did the action is the winner.

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The meditator on the rules of Arabic grammar feels greater pride in his language, and feels proud and belonging to this rich language full of accurate, lively, beautiful, and profound meanings, as well as pleasure and wit.