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Wound science analysis, modification and return to the roots

Wound science analysis, modification and return to the roots

Some orientalists praised the science of wounding and modification among Muslims, describing it as a science that is not known to the nations, and it is like that; These studies are about how confident each narrator is, and whether or not he heard from whomever he narrated, something that the Muslims invented. We know that Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ali ibn al-Madini, and Yahya ibn Ma’in are the great hadith critics in their time, the third century AH, that specific time period in which the Musnad, the two Sahihs and the four books of the Sunnah came out, and the three are also the sheikhs of al-Jarh and al-Ta’deel.

But the serious researcher must ask: Where did this science come to them? And who are they who spoke about it before them? And if we will accept their testimony from those who were contemporaries with them, despite the existence of sectarian rivalry, such as accepting their words in the Mu’tazila; How did they judge the narrators of hadith who did not see them? These are questions that I did not see who asked, especially the question about the beginning of this art. The History of Al-Jarh and Al-Ta’deel says that these three men have taken this knowledge from two great critical Hafizs, namely Yahya bin Saeed Al-Qattan, and Abd Al-Rahman bin Mahdi. And if we proceed with the analysis and ask: Who took these two men? The answer will be: They took it from their sheikh Shu’bah bin Al-Hajjaj Al-Wasiti. He is the one who split words in men, describing people as trustworthy, describing others as weak, and describing others as lying. I would like to take a breath at this point, because I want to state here what I have found as a conclusion of a long research, and this report is said for the first time and has not been discussed before. The science of al-jarh and ta’deel arose from Shu’bah in the second century, and the hadith scholars put all confidence in his judgment, which cannot acquire the character of certainty, given his undisputed humanity. Let’s hold a finger on this. When I searched for other sources of jarh, modification, and speech in men, I did not find much that could be said when I went back to before Shubah, and did not find anything else in his time; His colleague, who shared the title of “Commander of the Faithful in Hadith”, Sufyan Al-Thawri, has hardly any words preserved in the narrators, I say: hardly, because he spoke about one or two men. They say that the sheikhs of Malik bin Anas are all trustworthy, and this is acceptable to some degree, based on the testimony of Malik himself. But Malik Kasfyan, I did not see him speak except about one or two men, and it was said that he narrates only from trust, and the number of those he narrated from are very few, and the hadiths of his footsteps are few as well, and they are not compared to hundreds of thousands of hadiths that came later, and the people of the century did not know them. the first.

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There is another name that is said to be one of the pioneers of Al-Jarh and Al-Ta’deel, which is Muhammad bin Sirin, and this means that we need to put a scalpel to analyze this claim to see if it proves or falls. In the introduction to “Sahih Muslim” on the authority of Ibn Sirin that he said: “They did not ask about the isnad; When the fitnah occurred, they said: Name your men for us, so the hadith of the Sunnis will be looked at, and their hadiths will be taken, and the people of innovation will be looked at, but their hadiths will not be taken.” This text is the whole basis of that claim, and there is no other evidence; I searched for a word to be included in the documentation and weakness, and I didn’t find anything.

This brings us back to square one: to a branch, to be the only basic source for the science of wound and modification. And Shubaa was jealous of hadith, chasing the narrators, so either they would stop talking or he would strive to have the sword of the state descend upon them. They narrated on the authority of al-Shafi’i that he said: Shu’bah used to come to a man (meaning the one who was not qualified to speak in his view) and he would say: “Do not speak, or else I will antagonize the ruler against you.” And they narrated from him that he said: “If I had a sword and a spear, I would invade Suwaid bin Saeed,” because he narrated the hadith: “Whoever loves and abstains, then conceals and dies, then he is a martyr.” The division of this is, no doubt, part of the culture of antagonism that everyone has exercised against everyone; All of them would raise the sword of the Sultan, if they could, in the faces of each other, and a man might be injured by something that has nothing to do with honesty and trustworthiness. This happened with a hadeeth named Hajjaj bin Minhal, whose hadiths were weakened by Shu’bah, on the pretext that he “heard a sound of rapture in his house”! This is undoubtedly one of the unjust and puritanical rulings that dropped confidence without reason. The realization of the saying and its determination is that it was not before anyone’s division, and that it is the only source for this art. This is an issue that I have not seen anyone notice before me. From him, knowledge was transferred to his two students: Yahya bin Saeed and Abdul Rahman bin Mahdi, and from them it moved to Ahmed bin Hanbal, Yahya bin Ma’in and Ali bin Al-Madini, and with Ahmed and the sedition of the creation of the Qur’an, this art broke out and there was a lot of slander in men for reasons not limited to honesty and preservation. And from the three, knowledge passed to Al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abi Dawood, and from Al-Bukhari it moved to Al-Tirmidhi, and on this basis the books of hadith were built: Musnad Ahmad, the two Sahihs, the books of the four Sunan and the rest of the books in the era of codification, the era of the caliphate of Bani Al-Abbas.

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The science of al-jarh and ta’deel is a science whose entire history is based on the choices of one man who is not infallible from error, forgetfulness and disputes. . What is the frequency of its pronunciation, such as “Whoever lies about me deliberately, let him take his seat in the Fire”, and what is the frequency of its meaning, such as the way in which Muslims pray, fast and practice their worship. As for the one-to-one hadith, i.e. the one whose narration is unique to one person in the chain of narrators, it cannot benefit any sane person with certainty. This opinion is not new. Rather, it is the position of the scholars of the two origins, where Islamic thought is truly manifested. The fundamentalists of the Hanafis, the Malikis, and the Shafi’i, and even the Hanbalis among them, transmit from their imams that the hadith that is unique to one man, whether it is a companion, a follower, or a follower of a follower, is “one report” that benefits conjecture and does not benefit certainty, meaning that we have no certainty that the Messenger said it.

I have come across a text by Ibn Taymiyyah, who is among the people of hadith, which is weakened in a hadith in Jami’ al-Bukhari on the grounds that it is “a single hadith” that was not mutawatir. The scholars of the fundamentals have inferred the validity of this doctrine that accepting the news of the Sundays requires corrupt conditions. It is as if the judge believed the plaintiff against his opponent without evidence, because knowledge is obtained by his saying. And because it is not necessary to believe it without evidence; The news of one does not benefit certainty. And if one’s report was an argument, then in litigation it is necessary that one witness suffice, not two witnesses, and because one witness is not sufficient, it becomes clear that one’s report does not benefit certainty. And the Messenger did not accept from the man whom they call the two hands when he said that he prayed the afternoon prayer two units of prayer, until the worshipers testified to him that his words were true. This is further strengthened by the fact that we find a man who revolves around most of the hadiths and is mentioned in many chains of transmission, such as al-Hasan al-Basri, declaring to some of his disciples that he used to narrate the hadith with meaning and not with his wording, and this is all of it.

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* Saudi writer and researcher